Elger: The Moon (1895)

(glossary entry)

Description

Thomas Gwyn Elger's The Moon: A Full Description And Map Of Its Principal Physical Features is one of the little known classics from the golden age of visual lunar observing. Because it is in the public domain, and freely available through the kind services of Project Gutenberg and Steve Ridgway (who transcribed it electronically), Chuck has chosen to use it to add a historical perspective to the descriptions of lunar features on the-Moon Wiki. Elger was a careful observer, and if nothing else it gives a good impression of what can be observed by eye, through a small telescope, from Earth. In recognition of his accomplishments, a 21-km diameter crater on the Moon's nearside is named after him.

Additional Information

  • Two copies of Elger can also be viewed as a searchable on-line "flip-book" or PDF download at the Internet Archive: Copy 1 or Copy 2.

In many cases Elger's terminology differs from that in modern use. In particular, Elger wrote his book in an era when the convention for what should be regarded as east and west on the Moon was the reverse of the IAU directions used today. For the-Moon Wiki, the Easts and Wests in most of the entries from Elger have been converted to the modern IAU usage. So if a passage is marked IAU Directions it will be consistent with E being on the Crisium side of the Moon. A few older entries may be in Elger's original reversed E-W format.

Antiquated Spellings


You will also encounter a number of terms that are not in common use today. For example:

ELGER'S TERM
Modern Term
walled plain or ring plain
crater
cleft
rille
(list to be expanded...)

Also, Elger used what are now antiquated names for a number of the lunar features. Some of these have been replaced by newer names, others have been dropped.

ELGER'S SPELLING
IAU Spelling
ALPS
Montes Alpes
ANAXIMINES
Anaximenes
APENNINES
Montes Apenninus
AZOUT
Auzout
BACON
Baco
BERNOUILLI
Bernoulli
BOND, G.P
G. Bond
BOUVARD
Vallis Bouvard
BURG
Bürg
BUSCHING
Büsching
CAPE AGARUM
Promontorium Agarum
CAROLINE HERSCHEL
C. Herschel
CARPATHIANS
Montes Carpatus
CATHERINA
Catharina
CAUCASUS
Montes Caucasus
CONDAMINE
La Condamine
CRUGER
Crüger
FONTINELLE
Fontenelle
GALILEO
Galilaei
GARTNER
Gärtner
GRUITHUISEN DELTA
Mons Gruithuisen Delta
GRUITHUISEN GAMMA
Mons Gruithuisen Gamma
GUERIKE
Guericke
GUTTEMBERG
Gutenberg
HAEMUS MOUNTAINS
Montes Haemus
HARBINGER MOUNTAINS
Montes Harbinger
HEVEL
Hevelius
ISODORUS
Isidorus
J.F.W. HERSCHEL
J. Herschel
KASTNER
Kästner
LA PEYROUSE
La Pérouse
LACAILLE
La Caille
LAHIRE
Mons La Hire
LANDSBERG
Lansberg
LEGENTIL
Le Gentil
LEVERRIER
Le Verrier
LINNE
Linné
LUBIENIEZKY
Lubiniezky
MACCLURE
McClure
MADLER
Mädler
MOSTING
Mösting
MOUNT ARGAEUS
Mons Argaeus
MOUNT BRADLEY
Mons Bradley
MOUNT HADLEY
Mons Hadley
MOUNT HUYGENS
Mons Huygens
MOUNT WOLF
Mons Wolff
OTTO STRUVE
Struve
OTTO STRUVE A
reference to the crater Eddington?
PICO
Mons Pico
PINGRE
Pingré
PITON
Mons Piton
PONTECOULANT
Pontécoulant
PROMONTORY ACHERUSIA
Promontorium Archerusia
REAUMUR
Réaumur
ROMER
Römer
SCHROTER
Schröter
SOMMERING
Sömmering
STOFLER
Stöfler
TAQUET
Tacquet
TAURUS MOUNTAINS
Montes Taurus
THE ALTAI MOUNTAINS
Rupes Altai
THE HERACLIDES PROMONTORY
Promontorium Heraclides
THE LAPLACE PROMONTORY
Promontorium Laplace
THE STRAIGHT RANGE
Montes Recti
THE STRAIGHT WALL
Rupes Recta
THE TENERIFFE MOUNTAINS
Montes Teneriffe
TOBIAS MAYER
T. Mayer
VASCO DE GAMA
Vasco da Gama
W. HUMBOLDT
Humboldt
W.C. BOND
W. Bond
WALTER
Walther
WILHELM I
Wilhelm
ZUCHIUS
Zucchius

Discontinued Names


Several names Elger used do not match any currently approved name in the IAU Nomenclature. Those features, of course, still exist, they are just no longer named:

D'ALEMBERT MOUNTAINS
DORFEL MOUNTAINS
LEIBNITZ MOUNTAINS
ORIANI
PROM. AENARIUM
THE HERCYNIAN MOUNTAINS
THE HUMBOLDT MOUNTAINS
THE NORTH POLAR RANGE
THE PERCY MOUNTAINS
THE SILBERSCHLAG RANGE
THE SINUS IRIDUM HIGHLANDS
THE STAG'S-HORN MOUNTAINS

Finally, it appears that Elger did not stick strictly to the convention of referring to satellite craters with Roman letters and elevations (peaks) with Greek letters -- a practice that was used by many of his contemporaries. Although he frequently did use Greek letters in this way, his references to something like Fontinelle A may still be to a peak near Fontenelle rather than to the modern lettered crater of that name.

- JimMosher JimMosher

Description: Wikipedia

wikipedia

LPOD Articles

Elger Reborn? A Quadrant of Elger Who Named that Crater? Ray Systems

Bibliography

  • Full Elger text with E-W directions in modern style:
  • Fielder, Gilbert. 1963. Some Lunar Studies by T. G. Elger. Sky and Telescope Vol. 15, No. 4 (May issue), pp. 248-251. article illustrated by drawings made by Elger between 1884 and 1896, with particular emphasis on his depiction of "lineaments"



This page has been edited 16 times. The last modification was made by - JimMosher JimMosher on Aug 19, 2009 11:34 am - mgx1