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A New Atlas?
Lat: 43.31°S, Long: 11.36°W, Diam: 86.21 km, Depth: 4.7 km,
As viewed from orbit.
As viewed from Earth with similar lighting.
Table of Contents
LPOD Photo Gallery
Lunar Orbiter Images
none of the seven Apollo 10 photographs in the LPI's list show
! All of them were made at the eastern part of the moon's far side.
Nov 14, 2012
A very impressive orbital photograph of
's chaotic floor and central peak, made by Lunar Orbiter 5 (
Frame 5125 medium
), was included on pages 234-235 in the
of February 1969 ("Awesome Views of the Forbidding Moonscape"; a nine-page portfolio). The chaotic nature of the floor is most apparent in the high-resolution segments, which cover a swath just north of the central peaks. Research Danny Caes.
images (the following frames seem to be taken from a simulated
which can also be
as a 286 MB zip file in
- viewed obliquely from the south
- closer image from the south
- more distant view from the southwest
- oblique view of inner wall from point to east of centerline, looking west
- oblique view of inner wall looking north
USGS Digital Atlas PDF
LRO LOLA Topo Map
TYCHO.--As the centre from which the principal bright ray-system of the moon radiates, and the most conspicuous object in the southern hemisphere, this noble ring-plain may justly claim the pre-eminent title of "the Metropolitan crater." It is more than 54 miles in diameter, and its massive border, everywhere traversed by terraces and variegated by depressions within and without, is surmounted by peaks rising both on the W. and E. to a height of about 17,000 feet above the bright interior, on which stands a magnificent central mountain at least 5,000 feet in altitude. Were it not somewhat foreshortened, Tycho would be seen to deviate considerably from what is deemed to be the normal shape. On the S. and E. especially, the wall approximates to the linear type, no signs of curvature being apparent where these sections meet. The crest on the S. and S.W. exhibits many breaks and irregularities; and it is through a narrow gap on the S. that a rill-like valley, originating at a small depres
sion near the foot of the S.E.
, passes, and, descending the inner slope of the S.W. wall obliquely, terminates near its foot. There is a distinct crater on the summit ridge on the S.W., and another below the crest on the outer S.E. slope. On the S. inner slope I have often remarked a number of bright oval objects, which, for the lack of a better word, may be termed "mounds" though they represent masses of material many miles in length and breadth. The outer slope of Tycho, exhibiting under a high light a grey nimbus encircling the wall, includes--craters, crater-pits, shallow valleys, spurs and buttresses--in short, almost every variety of lunar feature is represented. Excepting the central mountain and a crater on the E. of it, I have not seen any object on the floor, which, for some unexplained reason, is never very distinct. Schmidt shows several low ridges on the N.W. side. In a paper recently published in the
, Professor W.H. Pickering, describing his observations
of the Tycho streaks made at Arequipa, Peru, with a 13 inch achromatic, asserts that they do not radiate from the centre of Tycho, but from a multitude of minute craters on its S.W. or N. rim. (See Introduction.)
Depth data from
Kurt Fisher database
Margot, 1999: 4.7 km
Pike, 1976: 4.6 km
Westfall, 2000: 4.6 km
Viscardy, 1985: 4.8 km
Cherrington, 1969: 4.2 km
The topography of Tycho was studied in considerable detail by Margot
(1999) based on radar interferometric measurements. They found a mean rim to floor difference of 4.7 km, and a central peak height of 2.4 km. The western floor was found to be 200 m higher than the eastern floor, with their average being approximately 1734.03 km from the Moon's center.
Tycho's diameter is listed as 102 km in the
IAU Planetary Gazetteer
, however the correct diameter of the rimcrest, as given in the Margot
article and by measurement on
photos is 85 km.
West rim slope 34°, east rim slope 46° (
at 70 cm.
Possible oblique impact – downrange E - based upon dark collar (impact melt) most evident to N, width 0.8 crater diameter. [Kirata et al LPSC 30: 1350]. This suggestion is supported by Tycho's rays which are not equally distributed in all directions.
Central peak composition
: GNTA2, AG, AGN, G. Tycho is the most mafic peak observed. Its walls are also mafic, and since wall represent shallow rocks and the peaks, deeper ones, it has been suggested that Tycho formed on a pluton (igneous rock that rose through the crust as a pod) that must be at least Tycho's diameter wide and 15-20 km deep. Nearby craters are not mafic so Tycho is on an isolated piece of unusual rock. (
Tompkins & Pieters, 1999
Exterior impact melt deposits most extensive to E, max of ~35 km beyond rim. Most extensive ejecta, rays and secondary craters to the E, with max wall slumping on SW side of crater, and topographically lowest rim crest to E (
Hawke and Head, 1977
ALPO list of bright ray craters
TSI = 35, CPI = 20, FI = 20; MI =65
Smith and Sanchez, 1973
A compact cluster of 150/ 200 meter sized boulders could be detected at Longitude -12.9, Latitude -43.27 (Res: 4 m/pix) on the western inner slopes of Tycho. The most southern example of this cluster has a diameter of more than 200 meter. See the LRO's
ACT-REACT Quick Map
. Research Danny Caes.
(December 14, 1546 – October 24, 1601), a Danish nobleman, best known today as an early astronomer. He is credited with the most accurate astronomical observations of his time, and the data were used by his assistant Kepler to derive the laws of planetary motion. No one before Tycho had attempted to make so many redundant observations, and the mathematical tools to take advantage of them had not yet been developed. He did what others before him were unable or unwilling to do — to catalogue the planets and stars with enough accuracy so as to determine whether the Ptolemaic or Copernican system was more valid in describing the heavens.
(p. 33), the earliest name for Tycho may have been
("navel of the Moon"), suggested by
in the 1630's in connection with a never-completed lunar mapping scheme.
introduced the name
, however he used it for the crater now known as
(p. 195). On his manuscript map, the modern Tycho was (according to Whitaker) labeled
(a name Van Langren later transferred to
), and Tycho was labeled
Vladislai IV Reg. Pol.
(pp. 191, 197, and 198). Hevelius used the name
for Tycho (p. 207) and
for the "north half of dark halo around Tycho" (p. 208).
The modern usage of
appears to have been introduced by
. Whitaker does not mention this, since he doesn't regard it as "new" name,
having been earlier honored by Van Langren.
Jul 17, 2008
was part of the original IAU nomenclature of
Blagg and Müller
(a crater chain) is located near craters
itself). It (
) could be the "source" of the western one of the bright double ray toward
. Detected by Danny Caes on LPOD
Abrasion and Rhino Hide
Tycho Central Peak Spectacular
Chaotic Crater Floor in Tycho
Polygonal Fractures on Tycho Ejecta Deposits
Ejecta in Tycho Crater
Impact melt features in Tycho crater's floor
Steep Places on the Moon
Streaks Across a Mauve Moon
60'' of Tycho
And the Walls came Tumbling Down
lpod/August 8, 2008|Happy 8/8/8
What? More Tycho?
Abrasion and Rhino Hide
14 inches of Tycho
(extraordinary telescopic hi-res photograph, by George Tarsoudis)
: Large rayed crater with impact melts
Study of Spectral Characteristics of the Central Peak Region of Tycho Crater Using the SIR-2 Data On-Board Chandrayaan-1
Conference (Mar), 2011.
Evidences of Multiphase Modification Over the Central Peak of Tycho Crater on Moon from High Resolution Remote Sensing Data
Conference (Mar), 2011.
Le Mouélic, S., P.G. Lucey, Y. Langevin & B.R. Hawke (2002)
Calculating iron contents of lunar highland materials surrounding Tycho crater from integrated Clementine UV-visible and near-infrared data
J. Geophys. Res.
107, E10, 5074, doi:10.1029/2000JE001484
Margot, Jean-Luc; Campbell, Donald B.; Jurgens, Raymond F.; Slade, Martin A. (1999)
The topography of Tycho Crater
Journal of Geophysical Research
, Volume 104, Issue E5, pp. 11875-11882.
Morris, A.R., J.W. Head, J.-L. Margot & D.B. Campbell (2000)
Impact melt distribution and emplacement on Tycho: A new look and an old question
Lunar & Planetary Science
Pieters, C.M., M.I. Staid, E.M. Fischer, S. Tompkins and G. He (1994)
A sharper view of impact craters from Clementine
Wood, C.A. 20__. Tycho:
The Metropolitan Crater of the Moon
. S&T Online Article << accessed 6/2007 >>
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